Natural stone belongs to a limited selection of materials that are considered as a product with the best possible life cycle. It is a product that is so durable that it not only practically lasts forever, but also can be used for new applications and recycled again and again. Natural stone is thus a very sustainable product that produces no waste. Choose your natural stone in regards to its durability. For each type of stone, there is an application. You only need to choose the right stone for the right place with the right finish. Natural stone is a very primitive building material which human has used for constructing tools and shelters. In stone buildings, rubble stone along with alkali and plaster mortars has been used. It is not disputable that due to the
heaviness and subsequent transportation troubles, stone has been replaced by other building materials like bricks, however, it is still a significant building material for construction of huge and complicated structures such as bridges, tunnels, avalanche protection walls, retaining walls and so on. Considering the general mechanical characteristics of stones such as tensile strength, compressive strength, permeability and wave emission in different directions depending on the direction of layering leads engineers to choose the best stone for each project. Moreover, due to the outstanding resistance and unique beauty of natural stones, they are also used for facades, stairs and floor coverings. Human’s tendency to beauty is the main reason of daily increasing in the rate of natural stones consumption for facades, stairs and floor coverings. The drastic improvement in quarrying, is another reason for the mentioned enhancement. The main applications of natural stones are mentioned below:
The stones which are used for floor coverings and stairs are exposed to hit and abrasion, so it must be rigid and have got high hit and abrasion resistance. These stones should have the ability to be cut in one direction. Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks have the mentioned capability. Moreover, the stones which are used for floor coverings and stairs must have the minimum porosity in order not to be damaged by the detergents. Marbles, Granites and Quartzite are suitable types of stones for floor coverings and stairs.
Using natural stone for interior wall façade gives a very glamorous and stylish appearance to the building. Predominantly, natural stone is applied for the walls of administrative buildings, malls, restaurants, public baths and rest rooms and any other public places. Those natural stones are used in this regard must have a very attractive appearance and also a well-polished surface. Moreover, they should not be too much porous to avoid being damaged by detergents.
Those natural stones which not only have eye-catching colors and brilliant textures, but also have great mechanical characteristics could be used in interior decoration of the building. They are applied to decorate walls, fireplace, pillars, windows, doors and so on. Due to the natural beauty of stones, the trend of using decorative stones is drastically increasing among people.
Despite Granite, Marble is not a very rigid stone, so it is predominantly used for interior spaces and decorative purposes. Floor covering and stairs are two of greatest fields for using this kind of natural stone. Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks. Metamorphism leads to recrystallization of the primitive carbonate mineral.
Nowadays, Travertine is the most popular natural stone in buildings’ façade. The most prominent characteristics of Travertine is its porosity which increases its absorption property. Having both high resistance against climate changes and also softness for being used in making stone ornaments at the same time, demand for Travertine increases rapidly. Despite Onyx, quarrying of Travertine is not so much difficult. Its holes could also be filled with particular resins. The diversity of Travertine insofar as color is outstanding.
Due to the aforesaid facts, this stone is suitable for all the mentioned cases such as floor coverings and stairs, interior wall façade, building façade, decoration and so on.
Onyx is the most expensive natural stone in all over the world. Its eye-catching colors and patterns along with its exemplary characteristics which allows light to pass through, have made it the best choice for luxurious places and also decorative ornaments.
It had better not to use Onyx for façade due to its vulnerability against sunlight and climate changes. However, Onyx is a great choice for any interior purposes.
The most prominent characteristics of Granite is its high hardness. The reason of this very high hardness is the fact that Granite has got high percentage of Silica in its structure. This hard structure leads a considerable difference in the cutting process of this stone in a way that more time and energy should be spent for cutting the blocks of Granite into slabs and tiles. Moreover, the blades using for this purpose must be far keener and far more resistant.
Granite is a great choice for façade, floor covering, stairs, whereas it is not suitable for decorative purposes since its hardness. Public places are the main target for using Granite due to its extreme persistency.
This natural stone has got the least resistance among all the natural stones and could absorb humidity and pollution. Its polishability is not as well as the other natural stones. Therefore, it has got the least demand in the market. However, some of Limestones have different characteristics and have many fans in the market.
Limestone is not a great choice for façade, however, it is widely used in interior ornaments.